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Deepening without broadening jobs in Ghana's private sector (Английский)

Creating productive jobs is one of the greatest challenges in Ghana. This paper looks at job creation and its relationship with firm productivity and the quality of jobs among registered firms in the Ghanaian private sector, based on the 2013 World Bank Enterprise Survey. The study looks at the typology of firms in the industry and service sectors, identifying those that have created the most jobs, and the relative quality of these jobs in terms of productivity and firms' average wage bill. Although the formal private sector employs only a tiny share of total employment, the results show that larger and older firms account for the majority of workers, and formal jobs density is highest in Accra (Accra Metropolitan Area and Tema). Large firms also pay higher wages on average, are more productive, and account for most of the aggregate net formal job creation between 2010 and 2012. However, the relationship between size and productivity is positive and statistically significant, mostly driven by the upper part of the firm size distribution, pointing to potential market segmentations as micro, small, and medium firms create fewer jobs and are less productive. Removing barriers to the growth of micro, small, and medium size enterprises, and to the allocation of resources toward more efficient firms should be a key priority for policy makers.

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  • Автор

    Francis,David C., Honorati,Maddalena

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  • Название документа

    Deepening without broadening ? jobs in Ghana's private sector

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    information and communication technology;small and medium size enterprise;firm size;private sector employment;share of employment;number of jobs;types of firms;net job creation;quality of job;term of productivity;increase in labor;employment growth rate;labor productivity level;firm size distribution;private sector job;job creation rate;allocation of resource;high growth rate;labor market outcome;access to finance;access to land;jobs and development;gdp growth rate;change in employment;allocation of labor;social insurance benefit;national household survey;machinery and equipment;value added tax;basic descriptive statistic;social security payment;source of employment;rate of employment;job growth;micro firms;high wage;manufacturing sector;aggregate net;average wage;medium firms;fixed effect;market segmentation;firm productivity;firm entry;sampling frame;age category;oil production;export status;firm growth;Wage Bill;wage worker;foreign ownership;age cohort;employment share;real gdp;productivity gain;state ownership;business environment;economic expansion;oil reserve;working-age population;economic sector;agriculture sector;employment records;literature review;full-time employment;within-firm growth;survey design;total employment;foreign market;product market;largest firms;trade account;managerial capacity;foreign participation;private worker;agglomeration effect;geographical distribution;Emerging economies;communication sector;employment measure;sole proprietorship;written contract;entry cost;electricity sector;permanent employment;investment need;census data;regression analysis;downward bias;market competition;formal sector;construction sector;wage premium;Job Quality;young age;disadvantaged sector;firm dynamic;regression results;wholesale sectors;central tendency;market functioning;continuous measure;reducing inequality;labor skills;emerging economy;scale effect;financial intermediation;retail trade;Real estate;efficient market;wage employment;jobless growth;adverse shock;employment generation;labor absorption;positive relationship;trade service;advanced economy;productivity dispersion;trade sector;industry sector;allocative efficiency;Technology Transfer;garment industry;competitive market;legal right;skilled labor;economic reform;driving force;commodity export;public debate;large enterprise;development policy;food manufacturer;employment rate;sales revenue;net employment;net growth;panel data;job turnover;equal share;firm concentration;firm sale;firm exit;open access;cross-sectional data;formal manufacturing;employee account;exporting firms;single source;urban one;rural area;investment boom;informal business;Extractive Industry;initial investment;positive correlation;business service;

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