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Rethinking resource conflict (Английский)

Resource conflict is one of several destabilizing phenomena commonly cited as defining many of the extractive economies of the global south. In the post-cold war in which stability has become a key concern of international governance and investment it has also been an issue that has encouraged a proliferation of scholarly and policy interest. In these studies and policy discussions a large number of terms are now in use in an attempt to account for the complicated state of affairs faced by resource-rich countries in the global south: intractable conflicts, new wars, resource wars, complex political emergencies, conflict trap, resource securitization, petro-violence, blood diamonds (Collier 2005; Kaldor 1999; Kaplan 1994; Nafzinger and Auvinen 1996; Watts 2008). The consensus built between these different terminologies and theories is that an abundance of natural resources is frequently at the root of violent conflict. As a result general acceptance has been made of the existence of a paradox of plenty (Karl 1997) i.e. that the vast majority of conflict prone and war ravaged states in the global south, including those recently emerging from violent conflict, are extractive economies who are endowed with strategic natural and mineral resources yet cannot avert declining into debilitating violence and war. Equally puzzling for many scholars is the observation that while these states contribute essential inputs to the global economy, they largely remain underdeveloped and politically unstable with a sizeable majority of their citizens living on less than a dollar a day.

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