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India - Second Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Project : environmental assessment (Vol. 2) : Final report (revised) (Английский)

This environmental assessment (EA) for the Second Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Project, reviews the national policy, legal, and administrative framework, as well as the State level requirements, the Karnataka Ground Water Act of 1999, and legislative measures to promote rural sanitation. However, following a critical analysis on the baseline environmental status, the EA recommends mitigation measures as follows. Water quantity of existing water supplies should be augmented through the rehabilitation of existing systems; identification of new sources (mostly ground water sources); local, and distant surface sources, requiring simple treatment, such as slow sand filtration, and/or chlorination; and, appropriate blending of water from existing sources to meet drinking water quality standards. Water quality should undergo a sanitary survey, to then include measures to convert existing dug wells into sanitary wells, and fence surface sources, to obtain a catchment area protection. Continuous chlorination should be implemented, including regular water quality testing, and bacteriological control. Adequate residual pressure should be ensured at the distribution points, and household, community, and institutional latrines promoted. Sustained sanitation/hygiene programs would increase positive attitudes, and behavior, specially focused on women, and children. In addition, drainage should include treatment, and disposal of residues, while a solid waste management program should identify common sites for sanitary disposal, and, waste could be composted, to be sold as fertilizer to generate income. Health preventive issues include curative programs, and regular de-worming measures.

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