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Industry and the environment : Patterns in World Bank lending (Английский)

A significant amount of World Bank lending has been for industrial sector development. This has taken two forms-the first is direct lending to state enterprises, and the second has been via lending to development finance companies (DFCs) for industrial development. On average, in the 1970s, about 17 percent of total Bank loans found their way either directly or via DFCs to the industrial sector. This percentage declined slightly in the 1980s to about 12 percent and has declined further in the 1990s. The decline in recent years has been for a variety of reasons; first, the lending to DFCs for industrial sector development has been virtually stopped, and few examples of this type of lending are found, and second, with the increasing emphasis on private sector development, World Bank lending directly to state enterprises has declined. This paper looks at how the World Bank lends for environmental issues in the industrial sector and is intended to provide background for the further development of the Industry and Energy Department's work on environmental policies. Chapter 2 describes in general the trends in project design from the mid-1970s to the present. Lending for the environment in industrial projects has evolved from lending for pollution-control equipment for state-controlled industrial plants to mainly technical assistance for industrial environmental policy formulation and enforcement and the financing of credit lines for pollution-control equipment. A brief description of some projects is also given in this section to illustrate the evolution in project design. The second section looks in more detail at the technical assistance component in some of these projects. This takes several forms: from World Bank lending for environmental policy formulation and implementation in the industrial sector to studies of the effects of industrial pollution. The third section discusses the industry-related component of some country environmental action plans (EAPs) and looks at how recent World Bank industry/environment projects in those countries fit in with the corresponding EAP.

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