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Differences in Household Composition : Hidden Dimensions of Poverty and Displacement in Somalia (Английский)

Little is known about how gender inequality influences poverty rates of forcibly displaced people. This paper uses a nationally representative survey to analyze poverty among internally displaced people and non-displaced people in Somalia. More than half of internally displaced people’s households and 47 percent of non-displaced people’s households are female headed. Although poverty rates are higher among internally displaced people than non-displaced people (77 versus 66 percent), male-headed households are poorer than female-headed ones among both groups. Extending the analysis beyond headship to demographic characteristics and by the gender and number of earners provides a more nuanced picture. Demographic characteristics are strongly associated with poverty rates for internally displaced people but not for non-displaced people. Having more income earners reduces poverty risk for all households. For internally displaced people’s households, the largest decrease in poverty risk is associated with having more female earners, while having more male earners is associated with the lowest poverty for nondisplaced people’s households. The analysis highlights that poverty reduction policies and programs must cover all households and lift barriers to women’s economic opportunities. Programs that respond to women’s care responsibilities and address barriers to women’s economic opportunities are especially important for internally displaced people.

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