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Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend (Английский)

Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls' exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. ... Подробнее +

Рабочий документ в рамках исследования вопросов политики WPS5753 AUG 01, 2011

Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy

Who pays? Out-of-pocket health spending and equity implications in the Middle East and North Africa (Английский)

Ensuring affordable, effective health care and financial protection against the adverse effects of household out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures represents an important policy objective in most countries, yet relatively little evidence exists regarding patterns and implications of household health expenditures in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. ... Подробнее +

Рабочие документы 58014 NOV 01, 2010

Elgazzar, Heba; Raad, Firas; Arfa, Chokri; Mataria, Awad; Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad; Fesharaki, Sanaz; Majbouri, Mehdi